Senate report on COVID coronavirus origins the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 that resulted in the COVID-19 pandemic was most likely the result of a research-related incident… Dec. 20, 2019 to Jan. 18, 2020 Searches for flu-like symptoms Cases probably started mid October, 2019 Analysis of Natural Zoonotic Origins Hypothesis Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Lack of intermediate bats to humans Virus likely needed to circulate in an intermediate host An animal virus must evolve to gain human infecting potential Closest virus is in horseshoe bats residing in Southern China or Southeast Asia Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak Differs from Previous Natural Zoonotic Spill overs Lack of dead ends spill over events, no epidemiological train in animals or humans Influenza Infected poultry and birds always found H7N9 (2019) multiple independent introductions across multiple locations Geographically disparate, independent spill overs of H7N9 Avian Influenza had circulated in bird populations, time and several provinces in China before the first known human infections SARS epidemic At least five independent spill overs of the SARS virus into humans Live animal markets followed by human to human E.g. Guangdong Province, November 2002 to January 2003 SARS, later on in 2003 – 2004 Additional independent subsequent spill over infections in humans Civets identified within 6 months Early SARS viral samples from humans contained genetic mutations that reflected prior circulation and adaptation in palm civets In total contrast Chinese government, asserted that the COVID-19 originated from a natural zoonotic transmission occurring at the Huanan market Geo-temporal spread of COVID-19 in China, December 31, 2019 to February 11, 2020 Earliest identified SARS-CoV-2 well-adapted for human-to-human transmission Early SARS-CoV-2 variants had little genetic diversity, 2 nucleotides out of 29,900 (Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Uracil) No evidence of previous intermediate host circulation Genetic similarity between the environmental samples and human viral samples, supports the likelihood that the virus found at the Huanan Seafood Market was shed by humans Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) Committee, to address pandemic preparedness and response programs Interim report, to examine the two prevailing theories of origin Last fifteen months Reviewed several hundred scientific studies, interviewed several dozen subject matter experts, analyzed previous reports and studies. The lack of transparency and collaboration from government and public health officials in the People’s Republic of China with respect to the origins of SARS-CoV-2 prevents reaching a more definitive conclusion. I hope this report will guide the World Health Organization and other international institutions Introduction Challenging Since January 3, 2020, People’s Republic of China (PRC) have prohibited sharing or publishing any information on SARS-CoV-2 without state review and approval. Establishing timeline, is difficult Mid October, 2019